Browse Items (989 total)

Joint Resolution of 1954.jpg

The 1954 amendment to the Pledge of Allegiance sees the full addition of "Under God" into the Pledge of Allegiance.

The addition of "Under God" represents more than just a success by the Hearst Campaign. It is a point in history where a major…
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Sociologist, suffragette, social worker, philosopher, and Nobel Peace Prize winner Jane Addams, c. 1924

"'Even if Holloman has a First Amendment right to hold his fist in the air during the recitation of the Pledge in class, such a right was not "clearly established.'"

"Holloman's complaint alleges: (1) that plaintiff, while a student, was forced by…

"It may be useful to note our belief that most citizens of the United States willingly recite the Pledge of Allegiance and proudly sing the national anthem. But the rights embodied in the Constitution, most particularly in the First Amendment,…

From the case: "Petitioner school district requires each elementary school class to recite daily the Pledge of Allegiance. Respondent Newdow’s daughter participates in this exercise. Newdow, an atheist, filed suit alleging that, because the Pledge…

"Patriotism is an effort by the state to promote its own survival, and along the way to teach those virtues that justify its survival. Public schools help to transmit those virtues and values. Separation of church from state does not imply separation…

Source: https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/FSupp/466/600/2361432/ "Any alleged religious overtones to those activities are not grounds for refusing to teach them. See Smith v. Denny, 280 F. Supp. 651 (E.D.Cal.1968)." From the case…

"As for the pledge: I believe it is untrue ('Liberty and justice for all') and I refuse to swear to a lie."

"Three students refused to say and stand for the Pledge of Allegiance because of a belief that the words "with liberty and justice for…

"The salute of the flag is a gesture of love and respect ­­ fine when there is real love and respect back of the gesture. The flag is dishonored by a salute by a child in reluctant and terrified obedience to a command of secular authority which…

"The Declaration of Independence refers to 'the Supreme judge of the world', and 'the protection of Divine Providence'. Lincoln, at Gettysburg, spoke of 'this nation, under God'. Even the preamble to the New York Constitution expresses gratitude 'to…

"There is no doubt that, in connection with the pledges, the flag salute is a form of utterance. Symbolism is a primitive but effective way of communicating ideas. The use of an emblem or flag to symbolize some system, idea, institution, or…

"The requirement of participation by pupils in public schools in the ceremony of saluting the national flag does not, in the case of a pupil who refuses participation upon sincere religious grounds, infringe, without due process of law, the liberty…

"Freedom of conscience and of worship is the cornerstone of the foundation of our nation. There is no 'official' church in this country; indeed, it is indisputable that many of our forebears [**10] came to America to escape the established church and…

"It is no part of the business of government to compose official prayers for any group of the American people to recite as a part of a religious program carried on by government; though the Federal Constitution's First Amendment does not allow the…

"There is no suggestion here that the government's power to coerce has been used to further the interests of Christianity or Judaism in any way. No one was compelled to observe or participate in any religious ceremony or activity. Neither the city…

"There can be no doubt but that the flag is symbolic speech and by its very nature is communicative of ideas, goals and beliefs. Within the ambit of freedom of speech protected by the first amendment compulsory speech or expression of belief is just…

"The Crofts focus on the addition of the word "pray" [**30] without examining the other changes. But the amendments were introduced as a package to change the start of every school day to include the pledges of allegiance and a more comprehensive…
Yacht Club Salad Dressing Ad.jpg

An advertisement for the Tildesley Company's Yacht Club Salad Dressing and a piece of one of their bottles found at the Charnley-Persky House.
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1867-present
Founded in 1867, Armour quickly became one of the largest companies in the United States.Chicago and Union Stockyard quickly became the center of the American meatpacking industry; by 1880 Armour was Chicago’s leading industrial…
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1890-1922?
Frank Yergin sold his Paris, Illinois drugstore in 1890 with the intention of moving to Chicago to focus on manufacturing his own products. An advertisement for his Russian Oil is shown below; tin 1916, his wife is listed as the…
Edelweiss-Beer-Labels-P-Schoenhofen-Brewing-Co_86352-1.jpg

1867-1951
Peter Schoenhofen bought out out his partner’s interest in 1867, renaming their brewery the Peter Schoenhofen Brewing Company. Its most popular product was Edelweiss beer (see advertisement below). After Prohibition, the company…
postcard-chicago-arlington-place-w-from-clark-commercial-apartment-building-on-left-john-j-schmitt-pharmacy.jpg

1897-1922?
John J. Schmitt became a pharmacist at the turn of the 20th-century, opening his own drugstore at the corner of Clark and Arlington Place as early as 1897. He remained in the same location (pictured below in an undated photograph) at…
Burley_teacup.jpg

1871-1923
In 1871, A. G. Burley & Co. (established 1838) became Burley & Tyrrell, importers of glassware and china; the retail business was sold to a nephew in 1883, calling itself Burley & Co. (advertised below in 1902). The companies existed side…

"We're about the only nation to pledge allegiance to a flag, and we do it without even understanding why we do so. Perhaps it's time to consider retiring this anachronistic practice, or at least finding a meaningful replacement." Paul M. Howey does a…

"Indeed, the pledge's great unresolved question is the primary question now facing us. The pledge closes with a promise of "liberty and justice for all." Yet these two ideals are uneasy partners. Can one person take actions that harm society at large…
(1872-1922) CT.pdf

"A flag was then raised followed by a military salute by the pupils. While their little hands were raised to their foreheads they began to repeat this pledge: I pledge allegiance to my flag and the republic for which it stands; one nation,…
1872-1922 CT Pledge should be required in schools.pdf

"Every school in Chicago, yes, every school in the United States, should require of its pupils on every Flag Day, and on every holiday, when the flag is raised, to stand at attention and give the pledge."

Harry B. Garrett writes a short opinion…
It Is Columbus Day.jpg

"Ever since its been announced that there would be a national school celebration in observance of Columbus day the Chicago school children have been in a state of delight."

The Chicago Tribune details the itinerary for most public schools during…

"A nationwide celebration of the golden anniversary of the flag pledge is being promoted this week by the Daughters of the American Revolution." The Daughters of the American Revolution is a lineage-based membership service organization for women who…
Chicago and the World's Fair Every Promise.jpg

Chicago Daily Tribune article from November 7, 1892, page 8, with the headline "CHICAGO AND THE WORLD'S FAIR: Every Promise Made by This City Has Been Splendidly Redeemed"
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