Secondary Literature on Addams' Peace Advocacy
The Settlement Movement was a reformist social movement constructed in response to growing industrial poverty, beginning in 1884 with the establishment of the British Settlement House, Toynbee Hall, and peaking around the 1920s in England and the US, with the goal of creating 'settlement houses' in poverty-stricken urban areas, providing services such as daycare, education, and healthcare to improve the lives of the poor in these areas.
Toynbee Hall was founded in 1884 on Commercial Street in East End, London, by Samuel and Henrietta Barnett, out of the social Christian movement. The majority of social work prior had relied on religious institutions providing services to the poor out of charity and Toynbee Hall was established as a working-class 'university' to provide services for those in industrial poverty.
The building was in stark contrast to others in an area which was described by the then Bishop of London as “the worst parish... inhabited mostly by a criminal population” consisting of “wretched streets and foul alleys full of houses that are desolation without and squalor within.”
Jane Addams visited this institution in 1887 during her second Grand Tour of Europe and was greatly inspired by its work, with Toynbee Hall almost providing a sort of 'blueprint' for the settlement movement in the United States. However, the elitist and gender limitations that stylized Toynbee Hall did not factor into the development and establishment of Hull House.